IP (Internet Protocol)
We don't want to spend too much money to build every line a wire,
except those big one cross the oceans.
So we use routers to help us get more closer to our destination from A to B.
In reality, if 22.214.171.124(me) is sending an e-mail, FTP file
transfer, or web request to 126.96.36.199(you), the data
isn't being sent as one huge block.
Any slowdown that was caused by sending such a large amount
of data would have a ripple effect that would throttle the network for
all the other users.
As such, another crucial part of IP is splitting data into packets.
IP is also known as a connectionless protocol. There is not
necessarily a defined path from the sender to the receiver, and vice versa.
This means that in response to traffic that might be "clogging"
up one particular path through the Internet, some packets can
be "re-routed" around the traffic jam to follow the most optimal path,
based on the current state of the network.